TYPES OF BRAIN INJURY
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) - is an insult to the brain, not of a degenerative or congenital nature, caused by an external physical force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, resulting in impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance behavioral or emotional functioning.
ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY (ABI) – is an injury to the brain that is not hereditary, congenital or degenerative that has occurred after birth. This includes aneurysms and stroke.
THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION WAS TAKEN FROM THE BRAIN INJURY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA WEBSITE http://www.biausa.org/index.html
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that
disrupts the function of the brain. Not all blows or jolts to the head result in a TBI. The severity of such an
injury may range from "mild," i.e., a brief change in mental status or consciousness to "severe," i.e., an
extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury. A TBI can result in short or long-term
problems with independent function.
How many people have TBI?
Of the 1.4 million who sustain a TBI each year in the United States:
50,000 die; 235,000 are hospitalized; and1.1 million are treated and released from an emergency department.1
The number of people with TBI who are not seen in an emergency department or who receive no care is unknown.
What causes TBI?
The leading causes of TBI are:
Falls (28%);Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (20%);Struck by/against events (19%); andAssaults (11%).1
Blasts are a leading cause of TBI for active duty military personnel in war zones.2
Who is at highest risk for TBI?
Males are about 1.5 times as likely as females to sustain a TBI.1
The two age groups at highest risk for TBI are 0 to 4 year olds and 15 to 19 year olds.1
Certain military duties (e.g., paratrooper) increase the risk of sustaining a TBI.3
African Americans have the highest death rate from TBI.1
What are the costs of TBI?
Direct medical costs and indirect costs such as lost productivity of TBI totaled an estimated $60 billion in
the United States in 2000.4
What are the long-term consequences of TBI?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that at least 5.3 million Americans currently
have a long-term or lifelong need for help to perform activities of daily living as a result of a TBI.5
According to one study, about 40% of those hospitalized with a TBI had at least one unmet need for
services one year after their injury. The most frequent unmet needs were:
Improving memory and problem solving;
Managing stress and emotional upsets;
Controlling one's temper; and
Improving one's job skills.6
TBI can cause a wide range of functional changes affecting thinking, language, learning, emotions, behavior,
and/or sensation. It can also cause epilepsy and increase the risk for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease,
Parkinson's disease, and other brain disorders that become more prevalent with age.7
CONCUSSION - NOT JUST A BUMP ON THE HEAD
DID YOU KNOW? A CONCUSSION...
... is a type of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head (OR) by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can literally cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull; stretching and damaging the brain cells and creating chemical changes in the brain, these chemical changes can make the brain more sensitive to stress or injury until it fully recovers.
...is not a bruise to the brain and it does not usually show up on an MRI.
...can cause symptoms that can last for days, weeks, or even longer and
most concussions occur with out loss of consciousness.
A repeat concussion during recovery can...
* slow recovery
* increase chance of long term problems
* result in brain swelling or permanent brain damage
* be fatal
If you have a concussion in your teens, you are at an increased risk of having another concussion
SYMPTOMS OBSERVED MAY INCLUDE
THE PERSON MAY APPEAR DAZED OR STUNNED
CONFUSED ABOUT EVENTS
ANSWERS QUESTIONS SLOWLY
CAN'T RECALL EVENTS PRIOR TO HIT, BUMP OR FALL
CANT RECALL EVENTS AFTER HIT, BUMP OR FALL
LOSES CONSCIOUSNESS (EVEN BRIEFLY)
BEHAVIOR OR PERSONALITY CHANGES
FORGETS CLASS SCHEDULE OR ASSIGNMENTS
SOURCE OF INFORMATION - US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES/CENTERS FOR DIESASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT CONCUSSIONS VISIT
YOU CAN ALSO SEE A REPORT FROM CBS NEWS - DR. JENNIFER ASHTON
BY CLICKING HEREWhat is a traumatic brain injury?
INFORMATION FROM THE CDC ON YOUTH AND HIGH SCHOOL SPORTS CONCUSSIONS
CAN BE FOUND AT THE CDC WEBSITE AT THIS WEB ADDRESS